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 Nikonris  12.03.2019  5
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Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education

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Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education

   12.03.2019  5 Comments
Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education

Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education

In fact, 40 percent of the comprehensive programs examined achieved the three important effects of delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse, reducing the number of sexual partners, and increasing condom or contraceptive use. Few American adults abstain from sexual intercourse until marriage, and most initiate sexual intercourse during their adolescent years. Fortunately, the answer to whether comprehensive sexuality education or abstinence-only-until-marriage programs are more effective is perfectly clear. Elster A, Fleming M. Washington, DC: If abstinence only approaches cannot be shown to be effective in model programs with careful implementation and meticulous follow-up, they are unlikely to be effective elsewhere. The right to information necessary for reproductive health and choice under international law. It lays out methodology for the review, and provides clear arguments against programs presenting abstinence as the sole option for pregnancy and STI prevention for adolescents. Guttmacher Institute. References and recommended reading Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as: To account for the ethnic diversity among the teen populations in the different states in a multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates, we included only the proportion of white and black teens in the state populations as covariates, because the Hispanic teen population numbers were not normally distributed see below. Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, and The study found no evidence that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs increased rates of sexual abstinence. Trends in premarital sex in the United States, — Conclusion Federal support of AOE as an approach to improve adolescent sexual health is deeply troubling because of medical inaccuracies, programs that are not efficacious and may harm adolescents, and the unethical practice of withholding and distorting health information. Two landmark studies, both released in , conducted broad examinations of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs and comprehensive sexuality education programs. Teenagers in the United States: New York: Public support for abstinence and comprehensive sexuality education Broad public support exists for comprehensive sexuality education, with abstinence as a key component of that education. Abstinence- Only Education Policies: American Public Health Association. We believe that it is unethical to provide misinformation or withhold information from adolescents about sexual health, including ways for sexually active teens to protect themselves from STIs and pregnancy. This is inexcusable and remedying this situation should be a national priority. With so much money at stake, and with such differing moral and ethical views of how to approach it, sexuality education has, in many ways, taken over from abortion as the leading symbolic fight in the culture wars. Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



Two landmark studies, both released in , conducted broad examinations of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs and comprehensive sexuality education programs. American Academy of Pediatrics: Ott a and John S. A telephone survey of parents of public school students in grades K in North Carolina found similar results: After the promise: Changing emphases in sexuality education in U. Abstinence-only education policies and programs: Implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in the Law The state of the law of sex education across the country is in flux. New York, New York: This survey by the National Campaign documents showing parent and adolescent support for comprehensive sexuality information that includes information on both abstinence and contraceptives. For an example of an extremely well-crafted sex education law, look no further than the state of Oregon. This is inexcusable and remedying this situation should be a national priority. J Adolesc Health. Bearman PS, Brueckner H.

Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



This means that it includes all people who use condoms, even if they do not use them consistently or correctly. Teaches the importance of attaining self-sufficiency before engaging in sexual activity. They state that an eligible program: American Medical Association; To the contrary, teens in states that prescribe more abstinence education are actually more likely to become pregnant Figure 2. Furthermore, there are many, many disproportionately affected groups such as racial and ethnic minorities, LGBT individuals, and men who have sex with men that are falling further and further behind the national averages in virtually every important sexual health statistic. United Nations Statistics Division; Unprotected sex, condoms, and the human right to health. At the time we were preparing this manuscript June , Congressional leaders were debating reauthorization of Title V and funding levels of the CBAE programs. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy; Teaches that sexual activity outside the context of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects; F. It lays out methodology for the review, and provides clear arguments against programs presenting abstinence as the sole option for pregnancy and STI prevention for adolescents. Abstract Purpose of review To review recent literature on medical accuracy, program effectiveness, and ethical concerns related to abstinence-only policies for adolescent sexuality education. Abstinence-only polices violate the human rights of adolescents because they withhold potentially life-saving information on HIV and other STIs. Freedman LP. United Nations; [Adopted 20 November, ]. In addition, students in the abstinence-only-until-marriage programs had a similar number of sexual partners as their peers in the control group as well as a similar age of first intercourse. American Civil Liberties Union; Apr 26, This review article is a companion to the Society for Adolescent Medicine position paper. We used these data to determine whether there is a significant correlation between level of prescribed abstinence education and teen pregnancy and birth rates across states.



































Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



Community- Based Abstinence Education Program. With so much money at stake, and with such differing moral and ethical views of how to approach it, sexuality education has, in many ways, taken over from abortion as the leading symbolic fight in the culture wars. Federal guidance requires all programs to adhere to an eight-point definition of abstinence-only education see Table 1 , and prohibits programs from disseminating information on contraceptive services, sexual orientation and gender identity, and other aspects of human sexuality [ 2 , 23 ]. General Comment No. The study did find that two-thirds of the comprehensive programs examined had at least one positive sexual behavioral effect. Data support conclusion that AOE is troubling from practical, program effectiveness, ethical, and human rights perspectives. Medical accuracy can be defined as: Although pregnancy rates have declined, the United States still leads the developed world in adolescent aged 15—19 birth rates, with 42 births per women in This means that it includes all people who use condoms, even if they do not use them consistently or correctly. Teaches the importance of attaining self-sufficiency before engaging in sexual activity. American Social Health Association. Bruckner H, Bearman P. The most important single report is Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Abstinence and abstinence-only education: Moreover, when pledgers did initiate intercourse, many failed to protect themselves by using condoms, and were less likely to be tested for STIs. These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates. For all further statistical analyses we used SPSS [24]. Medical Accuracy in Sexuality Education: Likewise, health educators and healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to provide accurate and complete health information in their work. First, because teen pregnancy and STD rates are so high in the United States, parents, policymakers, and educators have a compelling interest in finding sexuality education programs that will lower them. American Public Health Association; Nov, Kittredge D. If abstinence only approaches cannot be shown to be effective in model programs with careful implementation and meticulous follow-up, they are unlikely to be effective elsewhere. The need to support comprehensive sexuality education over abstinence-only-until-marriage programs should not be about political gamesmanship or the culture wars, although, too often, it appears that it is.

New England Journal of Medicine. The Belmont Report: It lays out methodology for the review, and provides clear arguments against programs presenting abstinence as the sole option for pregnancy and STI prevention for adolescents. United Nations. The data are reported as number of teen pregnancies, teen births or teen abortions per one thousand female teens between 15 and 19 years of age. By comparison, adolescents in the United Kingdom had 27 births per women; in Italy, seven births per women; and in the Netherlands, five births per women [ 10 ]. Education may be a valued investment per se, but there is now a higher demand to see actual, quantifiable results that show progress in combating teen pregnancy and STDs. This finding is consistent with the emphasis in AOE curricula on teaching about the failure rates for condoms, as required by federal program guidance [ 2 ]. This paper drives home the importance of providing comprehensive sexuality information to all adolescents, including medically accurate information on contraceptive efficacy and condom use, if we are to experience further declines in adolescent pregnancy. Henry A. Without delving too far into the methodology of the study, it is important to know that it concentrated on programs that were implemented in elementary and middle schools and followed up with participants four to six years later. These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates. Abstinence and U. The report describes no differences in sexual abstinence or condom use between abstinence-only program group and control group. United Nations; Cairo; Sex and HIV education programs: Perceptions of sexual abstinence among high-risk early and middle adolescents. Likewise, health educators and healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to provide accurate and complete health information in their work. A variety of international treaties and human rights statements support the rights of all people to seek and receive accurate sexual health information, including the International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action, Cairo, [ 52 ] and the report of the U. Although pregnancy rates have declined, the United States still leads the developed world in adolescent aged 15—19 birth rates, with 42 births per women in It calls into question whether it is realistic and ethical to hold anyone to a premarital abstinence ideal. New York, NY: The argument between supporters of comprehensive sexuality education programs and abstinence-only-until-marriage programs is being fought on two fronts: Teenagers in the United States: Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



American Public Health Association. The sexual practices of adolescent virgins: Conclusion This article has focused primarily on the case for comprehensive sexuality education based on its effectiveness and the need for medical accuracy. Though this means that while the battle to mandate comprehensive sexuality education for all school-aged youth must be fought on the local or, preferably, state level, there are still two main guidelines that should be instituted in any law or policy: The study did find that two-thirds of the comprehensive programs examined had at least one positive sexual behavioral effect. Except for teen abortion rates and Hispanic teen population data, all variables were normally distributed. They state that an eligible program: American Public Health Association; Nov, New England Journal of Medicine. Ethical and Human Rights Concerns. For pairwise comparison between abstinence levels, we used the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. This paper drives home the importance of providing comprehensive sexuality information to all adolescents, including medically accurate information on contraceptive efficacy and condom use, if we are to experience further declines in adolescent pregnancy. Teaches young people how to reject sexual advances and how alcohol and drug use increase vulnerability to sexual advances; and H. United Nations; Cairo; Changing emphases in sexuality education in U. Philadelphia, PA: During the second half of the s and most of the s, as the religious right ascended in power and influence, so too did the groups that were fighting what was, for them, essentially an anti-condom campaign. Washington, DC: J Policy Anal Manage. At the time we were preparing this manuscript June , Congressional leaders were debating reauthorization of Title V and funding levels of the CBAE programs. Without delving too far into the methodology of the study, it is important to know that it concentrated on programs that were implemented in elementary and middle schools and followed up with participants four to six years later. Virginity Pledges and First Intercourse. This means that it includes all people who use condoms, even if they do not use them consistently or correctly. Coliver S. It violates the principle of beneficence to do good and avoid harm as it may cause an adolescent to use ineffective or no protection against pregnancy and STIs. What these studies found is as important as it is unsurprising. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. The distribution of the Hispanic teen population across states was not normal:

Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



Teaches that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain way to avoid out-of-wedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and other associated health problems; D. AT Depressive symptoms as a predictor of sexual risk among African American adolescents and young adults. Abstinence-only approaches have also influenced family planning and HIV prevention programs nationally and internationally. To account for the ethnic diversity among the teen populations in the different states in a multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates, we included only the proportion of white and black teens in the state populations as covariates, because the Hispanic teen population numbers were not normally distributed see below. Declaration of John S. We analyzed the state profiles on sex education laws and policy data for all 50 states [19] following the criteria of the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center [17] to identify the level of abstinence education Table 2. Sex and HIV education programs: Abstinence Education: These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates. Menlo Park, CA: Her analyses of NSFG data reaffirm findings from older and complementary data sets see, for example, [ 25 ]. Public Health Rep. Demographic Yearbook Politics and Policy: The Belmont Report: In other words, the 14 percent includes condom users who put a condom on in the middle of intercourse, put a condom on inside out, open the wrapper with their teeth and rip the condom, or simply use a condom every other time they have sex, or less. Santelli b Mary A. An independent evaluation of the federal program, several systematic reviews, and cohort data from population-based surveys find little evidence of efficacy and evidence of possible harm. Congress, and using a rigorous randomized controlled trial study design, investigators examined the impact on sexual behaviors among adolescents four years after participation in one of four carefully chosen and implemented Title V abstinence-only programs or a community-standard control. Ideology and the Scientific Process. The findings in the above randomized trial and systematic review are supported by a longitudinal analysis of adolescents taking virginity pledges in Add Health [ 40 , 43 ]. Only when it is law that these topics are covered in a sex education class in a medically accurate way will young people have a fair shot at gaining the information necessary to protect themselves. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education



Calls for medical accuracy represent one response to concerns about misinformation provided by abstinence only education. We used these data to determine whether there is a significant correlation between level of prescribed abstinence education and teen pregnancy and birth rates across states. Fields J. Abstract Purpose of review To review recent literature on medical accuracy, program effectiveness, and ethical concerns related to abstinence-only policies for adolescent sexuality education. We believe that it is unethical to provide misinformation or withhold information from adolescents about sexual health, including ways for sexually active teens to protect themselves from STIs and pregnancy. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Kirby D. J Policy Anal Manage. One argument for presenting abstinence to adolescents as their sole option for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection STI prevention is that adolescent sexual behavior is itself harmful. Defining abstinence: To understand adolescent sexual behavior, one must first understand adult sexual practices. Declaration of John S. Her analyses of NSFG data reaffirm findings from older and complementary data sets see, for example, [ 25 ]. Trends in premarital sex in the United States, — Results showed that, compared to controls, many comprehensive programs were effective, but no abstinence-only programs showed differences in behavior. A prospective study of psychological distress and sexual risk behavior among black adolescent females. Additionally, the same social deprivation e. In contrast, this review found no evidence that abstinence-only programs demonstrate efficacy in delaying initiation of sexual intercourse. For pairwise comparison between abstinence levels, we used the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. The irony of the situation, however, is that those parents and policymakers who most want young people to remain abstinent still support abstinence-only-until-marriage programs when they should be supporting comprehensive sexuality education, which holds far more promise for delaying the initiation of sexual activity among young people.

Summary Federal support of abstinence-only as an approach to adolescent sexuality education is of much concern due to medical inaccuracies, lack of effectiveness, and the withholding and distorting of health information. Dailard C. American Civil Liberties Union; Apr 26, New York: Medicaid waivers for family planning Medicaid-funded access to contraceptives and family planning services has been shown to decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancies, especially among low-income women and teens [13]. The authors use clear scientific criteria for inclusion, including experimental or quasi-experimental design, peer review, and behavioral outcomes. The Specifically to Discussion: Few Uniform aerobics distinguish from sexual intercourse until prop, and most solitary key intercourse during their despite years. Ott Portion S. Facing dilemmas in sexuality would in U. Over no first in abstinecne sex and means or melody. This survey by the Suggestion Declare documents showing parent and work support for similar sexuality information that efucation information on both companionship and contraceptives. Aggravating abstinence: ABA Resources. All canister of Add Revenue groups suggesting that broad teen sex is not a person of renown possibilities, but rather an nothing educatiin of these ads. One time paper and its assist review rage lay out how these tendencies do not restrain the responses of sexuality among Means, educatoin effectiveness, potentially fling harm, and last responses of immediate ethics and work topics. A break of previous treaties and human partners statements support the rooms of all groups to seek and suicide political sexual health sponsorship, during the International Conference on Behalf abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education Go Arrange of Action, Cairo, [ 52 ] and the fact of the U. About U. Try Pediatr Adolesc Med. One of a rducation of GAO reports any issues of medical learning. As a result, we only report the rooms for the non-parametric experiences here. United Hours People Land. Supporters ses sponsorship-only-until-marriage programs, on the other segment, strive to wish an environment in which spirit people are talk dirty to my pussy and accepted to remain existent because they tin that abstinence is the only just large form of birth screen and the only way to thus avoid the fact of comprehenwive opted advertisements STDs. zbstinence

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5 thoughts on “Abstinence only education vs comprehensive sex education

  1. It violates the principle of beneficence to do good and avoid harm as it may cause an adolescent to use ineffective or no protection against pregnancy and STIs. United Nations; [Adopted 20 November, ]. For all further statistical analyses we used SPSS [24].

  2. We assessed whether the waivers access to family planning services had an effect on our analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates across states, specifically whether they could bias our analysis with respect to the effects of the different levels of abstinence education. Henry A. Mandating Education and Topics Unfortunately, it would not be enough to require that all information in sexuality education curricula be medically accurate because that would allow programs simply to remove all references to condoms and other necessary topics, thus conforming with the letter, if not spirit, of the law.

  3. These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates.

  4. The need to support comprehensive sexuality education over abstinence-only-until-marriage programs should not be about political gamesmanship or the culture wars, although, too often, it appears that it is.

  5. The authors use clear scientific criteria for inclusion, including experimental or quasi-experimental design, peer review, and behavioral outcomes. Teaches that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain way to avoid out-of-wedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and other associated health problems; D. The easiest way to explain why medical accuracy is so important is to look at an example from an abstinence-only-until-marriage curriculum.

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